Heart rate variability: for real doctors. Translation from the Russian version of the book, published at Kharkiv, 2010, 131 p.
The basics and practice of the clinical use of the technology of heart rate variability are outlined for doctors of all specialties and students of medical faculties of universities.
8. Regulation in human health
Frequency, depth, and rhythm of breathing
The frequency, depth, and rhythm of breathing have a significant effect on HRV. With increasing frequency, the relative contribution of HF to HRV decreases and the HF / HF ratio increases. There is a linear relationship in HR changes and the depth of breathing. With its increasing, TP is growing. Tests with deep breathing and Valsalva increase the overall regulation TP. Rhythmic breathing increases it too. Resonant frequencies are multiples of 5-6 breaths per minute.
The effect of respiration on HRV is not due to direct changes, but to the increased efficiency of TP due to the predominant effect of HF, not only in basal conditions but even with modulated respiration.
The effect of respiration on HRV mediates not by direct changes but through amplification respiratory dependent vagal modulation of heart rhythm. The blockade of beta-adrenergic receptors (propranolol) with a change in respiration with a fundamental frequency does not have a significant effect on the HF and the average HR in the prone position and with a slope, while the amplitude of the LF in both positions decreases.
Modulation of respiration and HRV. Healthy volunteer, 27 years old. The initial BR is 16 per minute, and in the test with matronized breath, 20 per minute. To HELL = 120/70 mm Hg, heart rate = 68 beats / min, after blood pressure = 120/70 mm Hg, heart rate = 65 beats / min. Data on HRV on the left before and on the right – after respiratory metronization. TP, HF significantly increase. The scatterplot for metronomized breathing demonstrates the expansion of the boundaries of the RR-intervals. The rhythmogram (right) demonstrates the corresponding metronomization of changes in respiration.
Test Valsalva and HRV. Healthy volunteer, 28 years old. Before the test BP=110/70 mm Hg, HR=78 beats/min, after – BP=115/70 mm Hg, HR=87 beats/min. a) Data on the left before and on the right – during the Valsalva maneuver. TP, HF increases by 2 times. The ratio of LF/HF reduces by 1.5 times. On the scattergram, the extension of the boundaries of the distribution of RR-intervals. c) Changes in HRV in the initial phase of a Valsalva sample demonstrate an initial hyper reaction of the mid-frequency link, LF/H= 8.1. c) Changes in HRV in the second phase of a Valsalva probe demonstrate hyper reaction of the mid-frequency and high-frequency link, LF/HF=2.1 accompanied by a drop in TP, due to the predominant HF decrease not only in basal conditions but even in modulated respiration.